The staff of structural divisions of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic is united by the general tasks on maintenance of economic safety and protection of national interests of the republic. Realization of these tasks demands considerable efforts and a professional knowledge. Honesty fulfilling their duty, customs officials show their best business qualities – honesty, courage, irreproachable following to their professional duty. All these qualities have been shown by the transdniestrian customs officers in disappearing 2008. It is necessary to recognize that it became one of the most difficult in the financial and economic plan. Customs officials of Transdniestria had to carry out their office debt in very uneasy conditions. Nevertheless, structural divisions of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic in whole have successfully acted regarding replenishment of the republican budget. The special attention had been given to introduction of some progressive software products and the updated technological schemes promoting acceleration and simplification of processes of customs clearance and customs control.
In the coming year great activity on effective counteraction to illegal displays in customs sphere is in prospect to us. The important steps to this sphere performed throughout of 2008. As a result of purposeful and laborious activity of officials of divisions on struggle against contraband and infringements of the customs regulations using in the activity progressive methods and means of operative work, 116 criminal cases had been commenced an action during only for 11 months 2008 that for 28 percent more than for the similar period of 2007. And 59 criminal cases had been commenced an action in sphere of counteraction to illegal circulation of narcotics.
In 2008 the significant step on rapprochement of positions of customs and business had been made due to the organization of the Public advisory council on the customs policy at
the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic. This joint body urged to promote on the basis of constructive cooperation to development and realization of customs policy of Dniester Moldavian Republic with a view of maintenance of protection of economic interests of Dniester Moldavian Republic, creation of optimum conditions for enterprise activity, rationalization of structure of export-import transactions and also the operative decision of the problems arising at customs and participants of foreign trade activities. The council had allowed to make active the process of search of constructive decisions of those questions which represent mutual interest both for participants of foreign trade activities and for customs bodies that as a result should promote on the development of foreign trade and manufacture in our republic. Certainly, economic agents of Transdniestria have felt the world financial crisis, which first signs even in the autumn of 2008 did not allow to feel in full force efficiency from realization of projects, but we will hope that the situation in financial and economic spheres is soon normalized and foreign trade activity of the transdniestrian enterprises becomes more active.
It has been made a lot of in 2008 regarding development of customs infrastructure, building of eight customs terminals-modules successfully operating today on various sites of the frontier of Dniester Moldavian Republic was finished. The new office building of the State Customs Committee is introduced in operation. Technical possibilities of the given object are calculated in such a manner that it becomes in due course the largest analytical and information headquarters of the service and also the control centre over a situation on borders and process of moving of the goods in the republic.
In the future customs officers of Transdiestria have a lot of work aimed at approach of international standards regarding customs affair. It does not cause doubts that the prospects planned by the service will be executed as the bases for this purpose were created throughout many years of planned work on development of information and customs technologies and also perfection of legislative base taking into account requirements of the international law of customs.
Cultural valuables- through the border
One of the primary goals assigned to customs bodies is the struggle against contraband of cultural valuables. It was suppressed illegal moving through the border of several hundreds of the items representing cultural and historical value during 16 years of functioning of customs bodies of Dniester Moldavian Republic. According to the international classification by profitableness the illicit trade of cultural valuables takes up on the second place-right after drugs.
It is possible to discuss about history of a considered crime for a long time. However it is necessary to tell that for the centuries-old period of development contraband of cultural valuables became more perfect as its mechanism is fulfilled at a professional level. And it is not surprising because there are a lot of persons wanting to have this or that curiosity becomes more and more every year and it is not possible to get them at auction. As more cheaply to “order” those or that items in the persons specializing on trade by antiques.
At the same time the persons convicted by the representatives of customs service in perpetration of offences assure that do not know the rules of moving of cultural and art valuables through the customs border.
– It was possible to believe still about 10-15 years ago that the citizens who are engaged in antiquarian business and a collecting do not know moving rules through the customs border of Dniester Moldavian Republic of ancient icons, coins, awards and other items representing both art and cultural value, – the official of the department on the struggle against contraband of Bendery customs Dmitry Ulanov ascertains. Then both the borders and customs were in a novelty. However now all legislative norms in the given sphere are brought into accord with the international standards and the information on them is opened for the population.
The criminal case commenced by the customs in Bendery concerning a transdniestrian collector following in the Republic of Moldova through the check point “Kishinev” became an indicative example of contraband of cultural valuables. It was early in the morning. The official examining salon of a minibus following on route “Chobruchi-Kishinev” had paid attention to the man in the last number. He pretended that he had slept and hadn’t paid any attention to the officers of customs service.
It had been revealed more than 300 coins of the different countries of the world, including ancient, stampings of 14-18 centuries and also awards of imperial Russia, the state awards of the USSR and a collection from one and a half thousand stamps of imperial Russia and the Soviet period had been revealed in the course of examination of his hand luggage.
-It was found out subsequently, – the officer of the department on the struggle against contraband of Bendery customs marks, – that the man went to Kishinev on a meeting of collectors for the purpose of exchange and sale of curiosities. This fact he had explained by lack of information regarding the customs legislation. Naturally it was difficult to believe in it considering specificity of activity of the given citizen.
The items withdrawn by the customs officers had passed art criticism examination and on the basis of the written conclusion of the commission “Tiraspol incorporated museum” had been recognized by cultural valuables.
And in the end of the last summer on the same check point and under similar circumstances there was not less remarkable incident which also had come to the end with commence of criminal case upon contraband of cultural valuables. The two citizens following from Transdniestria to Moldova in the car had issued at the border crossing uniform customs declarations having specified in them sums of money. However at the vehicle examination in salon and a luggage compartment had been revealed 7 not declared items of a cult concerning by the end of the 19- th and the beginning of 20-th centuries and 11 state awards of the USSR. And their owner – the driver of the car – had not thought up the best place for transportation of icons as a bucket. But the finds had not come to the end. Cult items had been found out in a glove compartment of the car.
And the resourcefulness shown by the infringer had amazed even skilled officials of the department on the struggle against contraband of Bendery customs. The man imperceptibly had thrown out in a grass on a roadside of road a package with an icon of
” the Iverskaya Mother of God” in the icon case with a framework. The curiosity is dated by 1880 year. And he had assured customs officers that had no relation to the given icon. However the results of fingerprint examination had denied words of the offender.
Even being in a premise of a check point in the presence of the customs official the man tried to hide a model of the Award of Lenin in office armchair and had been convicted at once. Whether it is necessary to mention that the owner did not have a permission to export cultural and historical valuables. In a consequence the art criticism examination operating at the Ministry of Public Education of Dniester Moldavian Republic recognized all those items revealed at customs inspection as culture valuables. Also it had been noticed in the expert resolution that their export can be resolved only under condition of granting of the documents proving the property right to them.
– Order of moving of the items carried to cultural valuables, – the deputy chief of the department on the struggle against contraband of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic Victor Zaruba explains, – is based on positions of Law of Dniester Moldavian Republic “About export and import of cultural valuables”. In the territory of the CIS countries and the far abroad similar rules operate. So, at transit of such items through the territory of Dniester Moldavian Republic it is necessary to give the document in customs body testifying that it is imported exclusively for the purpose of transit. As to the cultural valuables which are constantly being in the territory of Dniester Moldavian Republic the decision on possibility of their temporary exportation from Transdnistria is accepted by the Ministry of Public Education of Dniester Moldavian Republic. The certificate on the right of temporary exportation is granted which it is necessary to give in customs body.
It is necessary to specify that the cultural valuables declared to export are subject to obligatory examination which is carried out by the board functioning at the Ministry of Public Education. Its results also are the basis for making a decision on possibility or impossibility of such export. Examination is carried out under the application of the proprietor of a cultural valuable. It is necessary to present it to the expert board of the Ministry of Public Education. Annually the members of the board are studied about two thousand and more items, but only their small part are admitted cultural valuables (less than 1 percent).
As lawyers mark at contraband of cultural valuables their cost has no value as the subjective aspect of a crime is characterized by direct intention- the person understands that breaks the customs legislation, but motive and the contraband purpose, as a rule, the mercenary.
Another example. A scene of action is the international customs check point “Pervomaisk” of Tiraspol customs. Passengers of bus the route “Kishinev-Yalta” undergo procedure of the customs control in a customs examination hall. In luggage of one of them – the inhabitant of Odessa – the linear inspector reveals an ancient coin. The find suggests an idea that the given person can have still not declared items as far as them is concerned special rules of moving through the border operate. During realization of more careful examination in pockets of the citizen and among his personal things seven ancient coins, a pocket watch, breastplates of the early Soviet period and also the altar cross and antiquarian silver amulets had been found out.
The collector had appeared the owner of antiques. The items had been withdrawn and transferred for carrying out of art criticism examination as far as its results will dare, what measures will be undertaken concerning the given citizen – according to the administrative or criminal legislation.
As practice shows, businessmen from antiques try to use Transdniestria not only as transit territory for moving of cultural valuables, but also as a place for carrying out of illegal excavation for the purpose of export of found items of archeology and paleontology. Detention of such fans of the olden time who have arrived to our republic from Ukraine have made linear the inspector of check point “Nesavertailovka” of Tiraspol customs. There was next situation. In the morning two citizens of Ukraine had proceeded on the car through the customs check point ” Nesavertailovka ” in a direction of Transdniestria. The customs officers making examination of a vehicle had noted presence in a luggage carrier of bayonet shovels. When in the evening the men came back tools had appeared in earth clods.
Besides in the car there were two chairs, replaceable working clothes and also folders with copies of maps of settlements of Dniester Moldavian Republic and frontier areas of Ukraine and Moldova. Here the photocopy of the book “Significant sites of Sarmatians and tribes of Chernyakhovsk culture” and also a notebook with writings about finds – coins and antique items had been found. Both citizens could not explain to the inspector about appointment and an accessory of the specified items. All found and especially nervous behaviour of men had guarded the inspector of customs who had suggested to show contents of pockets of their clothes.
As a result among personal things of arrested persons three ancient coins, a ring and four items of domestic with traces of their long stay in the earth had been found out. No one of treasure selectors could not explain their origin distinctly.
Later to the place of incident officials of the department on the struggle against contraband had arrived and the driver of the car probably having understood that the things had taken a turn for the worse had refused state of the evidence. The found out items had been withdrawn and directed for examination to Ministry of Public Education of Dniester Moldavian Republic for their definition of cultural and a historical value.
Fellow citizens should understand that it is necessary to be responsible for attempts illegally to move cultural valuables through the customs border of Dniester Moldavian Republic.
– At moving of cultural valuables through customs border, – the deputy chief of the department on the struggle against contraband of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic accents, – their declaring is obligatory. It is provided administrative and the criminal liability by legislation of Dniester Moldavian Republic in case of absence of the special certificate from the Ministry of Public Education and also not declaration for them to the customs official during procedure of the customs control.
In this case actions of the infringer will be regarded as contraband of cultural valuables for what the criminal liability up to imprisonment for the term from 3 till 7 years with confiscation of property or without it.
Judging by the frequent facts of detention of the citizens trading in contraband of items of olden time, demand for historical valuables and a cultural heritage of our republic grows. But on a way of criminals there are guards of the transdiestrian borders.
Museum of customs service
Patriotic training of customs officers is one of the most important directions of activity of the service. The special role here belongs to museum means and forms of activity. The departmental museums created in the Russian Federation and the CIS countries pursue the purpose to tell to fellow citizens about customs history, its traditions, the present and the future, to show that the annals of customs service are an integral part of the historical constituent of all country. The similar museum exposition devoted to history of formation of customs department in Transdniestria is created by forces of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic.
Activity on creation of a museum exposition is conducted throughout five years. For this time a lot of sources reflecting activity of customs in the territory of Transdniestria which history is about six centuries have been studied. Exploration was spent in the Kherson state archive, in the Russian state archive of ancient certificates and the Russian state archive of economy. The essential help in gathering of historical materials was rendered by experts of the Tiraspol incorporated museum and its director Alla Melnichuk. At exposition drawing up funds of Bendery museum of local lore have been studied. The invaluable methodical help was rendered by experts of the Central museum of customs service of the Russian Federation in the name of its director Galina Lugovaya.
In a word activity was conducted enough long and laborious, but only in December 2008 all plans of organizers of an exposition managed to be embodied in a real image. It became possible thanks to transition of divisions of administration of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic in the reconstructed building to the address: Tiraspol, Gorkii street 53. On the ground floor of this specialized building, in the place most accessible to visitors the constant residence permit the lay-out of the exhibition also has received.
On the administration’s intention of the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic main objectives of the museum of the customs service of Transdniestria are increase of level of knowledge on the department’s history, growth of cultural level and professional consciousness of customs officials, development of historical thinking, understanding of historical continuity, perception of history of the department as integral part of national history and culture, satisfaction of interest of a society to customs department, increase of its rating.
Museums of a similar sort are under construction on the principles of narrow departmental interests also partial publicity that in the conditions of specificity of
the State Customs Committee of Dniester Moldavian Republic can be carried out by the organized visiting of a museum exhibition under forward orderings of the organizations. It is remarkable that at the level of customs ideas of the organization of exhibitions also are realized. Customs officials of customs in Dubossary became pioneers in this sphere. The given tendency is an indicator of the big interest of officials of customs bodies to the department history, immortalization of history events in regional aspect. This work is spent in most cases on public principles.
The exposition generated in the administration of the State Customs Committee reflects the basic stages of history of formation and development of customs service of Transdniestria since XV century before creation in 1992 of customs bodies of Dniester Moldavian Republic in detail. The basic exhibits of the museum exhibition are documentary and graphic materials about history of creation of customs service on the transdniestrian land, about development of structure of Russian customs service which component were the outposts located on the banks of the river Dniester . The special attention of the exposition is given to the organization of the Bendery customs outpost (1408г.), Dubossary overland quarantine (1792г.) and Tiraspol customs (1828г.) In an exposition it is possible to see the official reports which are starting with customs functioning throughout almost six centuries in Podnestrovje which testify about development of a legal regulation in customs affairs. Here there are items of a working environment of customs officers of various epoch, samples of customs symbols, a uniform historical suit, maps and documents on activity of the Tiraspol, Rybnitsa and Dubossary customs entering with 1919 for 1941 in the Ukrainian customs district (Ukrtamokrug) of the Main customs office of National Commissariat of foreign trade and the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the USSR.
Documents and photographic materials from archives of the customs bodies of Dniester Moldavian Republic occupy special place, consistently throwing light the periods of formation and development of the transdniestrian customs.
The structure of a museum exposition included two sections devoted to struggle against contraband displays of the customs officers of different epoch. The continuity of generations of defenders of economic borders of the state is traced on all extent of the exposition space representing a historical retrospective show of development of customs in Transdniestria.
Process of formation and replenishment of a museum exposition, as is known, has no final stage. Activity in the given direction will proceed in the future.